Jyapus are among the most progressive farmers in Nepal. Many Newars, in fact, participate in many of the observances of both religions. In the past, the upper caste people used to look down upon the lower caste. Today, they picture themselves as the most genuine Newars, the epitome of their society and culture. They got government jobs and other benefits. Also listed is the approximate percentages of the major castes of Newars sampled within Kathmandu Valley. The Shakyas, who are next to the Bajracharyas in the caste hierarchy, can also be called vihar priests. According to him, at the time of his study in 1982 there were about 60 bhikkhus, i.e. The case of Newār is exceptional. Newar caste system; Further reading. The high caste people like the Brahmins and Kshatriya are adopting traditional low caste jobs like sale of meat and washing clothes. The Chatharīya do follow many traditions very similar to those of the Khas-Chhetris. Within the Sresthas there are three hierarchically ranked, traditionally endogamous groups which describe themselves as i. Kshatriya or colloquially Chatharīya, ii. The Newar system varies from the ideal typical South Asian religious model in various aspects. This latter group may consider all Newar people to be equally Matawali and other inhabitant Janajati of Nepal, all essentially of the Vaishya varna, but this is not the perception of the Newars themselves. The Nepalese caste system was the traditional system of social stratification of Nepal. Caste system in Nepal Caste discrimination Nancy E. Levine. A special sub-group of the Gubhaju is called Buddhacharya who are traditional priests of Swayambhunath temple, the most sacred temple for Buddhamargis. Like Like. Today, Jyapus have succeeded in placing themselves at the centre of Newar society, thanks partly to the growing popularity of the Indigenous adivasi discourse. Naykhi Baja (lit. However, while the Bajracharyas’ exclusive occupation is priesthood, the Shakyas follow the hereditary occupation of goldsmiths. (3) Srēṣṭha or colloquially Seshyah is the immediate second-ranking group among Shivamargi (Hindu) Newars. Mongoloid peoples, thought generally to have Tibetan connections, are called “Sae(n)” This term is said to derive from an old Newari term for a Tibetan or, according to some, for Lhasa. Chārtharīya Shrestha are even lowered in the social status and consists of those from non-Srestha background who try to emulate or establish the Srestha (Chatharīya and Pañchthariya) status by pretending their norms or simply, in many cases, adopting the general caste-denoting surname like ‘Shrestha’ or in other instances ‘Joshi’, ‘Singh’, ‘Achaju’, or ‘Pradhan’. Stiller, L. F. (1993). These rankings reflect the rankings and ambiguities of the Muluki Ain, the attempt to legislate a Nepalese national status system. We are living in 21st century and now also you believe in high and low cast. Jyapu and lower clean occupational groups accept water as well as boiled rice and lentils from them. In 1963, Legal Code was replaced by New 1964 Legal Code. In the past, the upper caste people used to look down upon the lower caste. Majority population in Lalitpur, Bungamati, Kirtipur. To these historically established and upper Srestha ranks, Chārtharīya’s efforts remain unacknowledged and hence are not counted among the Srestha fold. Similarly, Newar untouchables and the clearly water-unacceptable but touchable groups (such as Naye and Jogi) are also untouchable or water-unacceptable to the Partya Brahmans and Chetris. Similarly, the Janajati has 36.0% of the total population of the country, has representation of 7.1%. The adoption of the Hindu caste structure by the Newar Buddhists is also not easily explained, because, in principle, Buddhists oppose the Hindu caste system. The parents traditionally arrange marriages for their sons and daughters, although with the modernization of Nepali society, an increasing number of young people choose their own partners. However, since the unification of Nepal in the 18th century, Nepal's various non-Hindu indigenous nationalities and tribes, previously called "Matwalis" (alcohol-drinkers) and now termed as "Adivasi/Janajati" (indigenous/nationalities), have been incorporated within the caste hierarchy to varying degrees of success. Chārtharīya. Till 1804 A.D. no Newar was admitted in civil service. The ordinary term, considered pejorative, is “Khae(n)” derived from their tribal designation Khas. Inter-caste marriages also take place in Newar society, usually where the bride marries a caste lower than hers. They have provided significant contribution to Nepali society and have been seen as the backbone of Newar community. The distinction between Hindu and Buddhist is largely irrelevant from here onward as the castes occupying the Shudra grouping do not differentiate between the either and profess both the religions equally and with great fervor. When an individual dies they become a preta and resides in relatives’ households before going to the kingdom of Yama. Toffin's work is a significant contribution to the study of Newar society and culture, and, as the publisher's note says, "will certainly be very useful to the Newar themselves to help them understand their own society differently, if not better. The Newar caste structure resembles more closely that of North India and Madheshis than that of Khas ‘Parbatiya’ in that all four varna (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and untouchables are represented. After the Rana regime, caste rules relating to food, drink and intercaste marriage were openly louted but the Muluki Ain had not been abrogated. (Census, 2001), In recent times, following the overthrow of the Nepali monarchy and move towards a federal republic, ethnicity and caste have taken center stage â the indigenous peoples (Adivasi Janajati) who make up a third of the country having been guaranteed rights that have not yet been fulfilled. This custom was traditionally only prevalent in the Hindu-Arya (Indo Aryan) societies of the Khas, Madhesi, and Newars. The Brahmins were like all other specialized service providers, except that they were considered higher to others in ritual purity. It was only those clientele Newar families patronized by the Ranas who succeeded in upgrading their social and economic status by imitating new norms of the Rana durbar. Newar-Brahman > … 1. Menstruating Newar women can comb their own hair, and may continue to sleep in their usual place, although they sometimes … Rajopadhyaya, Sharma, Acharya, Subedi, Shukla. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. The old Newar upper caste, the Shrestha, were also reduced to Matawali status. Therefore, while Rājopādhyāya Brahmins occupy the highest social position in the Hindu side, the Vajracharya (or Guru/Gu-Bhajus) form the head among the Buddhists. Caste endogamy, however, which has been one of the main methods of maintaining status in India, is not strictly observed in Nepal by either the Newars or the Khasas. Firstly, the buddhist priestly class has also been 'castified'. The Newar are divided into hierarchical clan groups by occupational caste, readily identified by surnames. Caste (jāt) Traditional occupation Personal Surnames (thars) Notes Brāhman, Shivamargi (1.1%) Hindu family purohit Rajopādhyāya, Sharmā, … Such a division of people created a rift in the society which has rendered the mention of caste as a taboo. Members of this group are touchable and water acceptable. Caste is inherently subjective; information for this site was gathered from an interview with a high-caste, ethnically Newar Nepali immigrant to the United States, Shreya Shrestha, who was present during the May earthquake, as well as outside sources like NGOs, opinion editorials, news resources, and needs assessments by organizations like the World Bank. Newar lowest occupational castes â Kulu/Dom, Podhya, Chyamaha/Chandala, etc. If these major three castes (Khas Brahmin & Chhetris, and Newars) combine together their shares in the Government of Nepal, civil service employment is 89.2% in 1991. Unlike the traditional Hindu caste systems prevalent in Khas and Madhesi societies, the existence of Buddhist “ex-monks” from ancient times in the Kathmandu Valley added a “double-headed” element to the Newar caste system. The Chatharīya and Pañcthariya accept water and all foods except boiled rice and lentils from them. Newar caste system is the system by which Newārs, the historical inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley, are divided into groups on the basis of Vedic varna model and divided according to their hereditary occupations. It has a highly stratified and systematic system of caste division which the Newars abide by strictly, even till present time as is evident by many Newars’ castes and their respective professions. In 1962, a law was passed making it illegal to discriminate against other castes led all castes to be equally treated by the law. If you agree to these terms, please click here. How Do Different People Assess Social Change In Nepal? Nay referring Newar butcher caste, Khi means drums and Baja as any kind of instrument or ensemble), the instrument which lends its name to the musician caste … The residual group, neither Khae(n) nor Sae(n), are Muslims and Westerners, and these are generally treated as untouchable by the highest levels, and water-unacceptable by those below them. The caste system is still intact today but the rules are not as rigid as they were in the past. Certain outside analysts have suggested that "seeking a balance in approach requires addressing both specific indigenous historical injustices while creating a common citizenship for all marginalised citizens regardless of identity, which remains a particularly challenging issue for Nepal". They are the purohits or family priests. The global definition of the caste system surrounds a classification of several hereditary groups of hierarchical social class.