Traits of prey species, including feeding type (food habits), digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant); or body size, did not explain locations of lion kills, and no seasonal patterns in lion kills were apparent. 1 being water and season. Well when swimming is the only way to get to their next meal some big cats in Botswana have adapted to the life aquatic. Willem F. de Boer, Marc J. P. Vis, Henrik J. de Knegt, Colin Rowles, Edward M. Kohi, Frank van Langevelde, Mike Peel, Yolanda Pretorius, Andrew K. Skidmore, Rob Slotow, Sipke E. van Wieren, Herbert H. T. Prins, Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species, Journal of Mammalogy, Volume 91, Issue 5, 15 October 2010, Pages 1280–1286, https://doi.org/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-392.1. Distance of lion kills (n = 215) from water of random locations (white boxes) and lion kill locations (gray boxes). Perhaps the high density of water points and the year-round supply of water, creating a low gradient in water availability, are the reasons that these factors were unimportant in determining the distribution of herbivores. Water that attracted prey, and not the vegetation density in riverine areas, increased predation risk, with kills of buffalo (Syncerus caffer), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) as water-dependent prey species. Mills M. G. L. Biggs H. C.. Funston P. J. What he refers to as his job, others might describe as a career spent attending summer camp for adults. By taking a look at a lion pride living in Zambia, our National Geographic Kids’ lion primary resource explains how these animals work together to survive the harsh environment of Africa’s savannah. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. Moreover, it has been found that grazers are more associated with artificial water holes and browsers and mixed feeders with natural water sources (Smit et al. 2006). Body mass, feeding type, or digestion type of the prey species were not related to the distance from the kills to water. Differences in prey selection (Jacobs index) could not be explained by the water dependency of the species (odds-ratio: rs = −0.123, n = 12, P > 0.05) or the density of the species (rs = −0.212, n = 12, P > 0.05). Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. (2003), as a proxy for water dependency of the different prey species. 2002), so that smaller species would be found closer to water than larger species. LION WALKS Due to increasing controversy about the ethics of lion walks and certain other "animal encounter" activities and the practices of those offering them within the Victoria Falls area, Zambiatourism.com will no longer be featuring such activities. An index of the vegetation density, and thereby for stalking opportunities of lions, was obtained using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 19 February 2006, in the middle of the rainy season, from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER; https://lpdaac.usgs.gov, accessed 2 June 2009). They’ve also passed on their swimming ways to a new generation of lions. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede, The Netherlands, Amarula Elephant Research Programme, School of Biological and Conservation Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards, Elk alter habitat selection as an antipredator response to wolves, Distribution and diversity of wildlife in northern Kenya in relation to livestock and permanent water points, Habitat use and movements of plains zebra (, The influence of lion predation on the population of common large ungulates in the Kruger National Park, South African Journal of Wildlife Research, Factors affecting the hunting success of male and female lions in the Kruger National Park, Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socio-ecological implications, Fractal geometry predicts varying body size scaling relationships for mammal and bird home ranges, Testing predictions of the prey of lion derived from modeled prey preferences, Carrying capacity of large African predators: predictions and tests, Grazers, browsers, and fire influence the extent and spatial pattern of tree cover in the Serengeti, Planning for success: Serengeti lions seek prey accessibility rather than abundance, The relationship between rainfall, lion predation and population trends in African herbivores, Predator–prey relationships: the impact of lion predation on wildebeest and zebra populations, Winter habitat selection by lynx and coyotes in relation to snowshoe hare abundance, Spatial dynamics of lion and their prey along an environmental gradient, Manifold interactive influences on the population dynamics of a multispecies ungulate assemblage, Predator–prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web, Spatial ecology of Iberian lynx and abundance of European rabbits in southwestern Spain, Herbivore population crashes and woodland structure in East Africa, Towards an integrated computational tool for spatial analysis in macroecology and biogeography, Surface-water constraints on herbivore foraging in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, Linking a cougar decline, trophic cascade, and catastrophic regime shift in Zion National Park, Restoring Yellowstone's aspen with wolves, River heterogeneity: ecosystem structure, function and management, The Kruger experience; ecology and management of savanna heterogeneity, Alternative dynamic regimes and trophic control of plant succession, Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. Population of Zambia; GDP of Zambia ; Zambia Co2 emissions; Sources. Carpenter S. R. Brock W. A. Cole J. J. Kitchell J. F. Pace M. L.. Creel S. Winnie J.Jr. Predation is known to influence the behavior of prey species (Fischhoff et al. 2001; Hayward and Kerley 2005; Hayward et al. 2007a). This analysis yields chi-square values for each prey species, and the discrepancies between observed and expected values (residuals) were tested for each of the individual species when the overall chi-square test reported significant deviations from expectation (Siegel and Castellan 1988). We have dug wells, drilled boreholes and built a water purification plant. Larger species generally have a larger home range to satisfy their requirements (Haskell et al. The Kalahari Desert is no exception. However, artificial water points had, as expected, significantly lower NDVI values than riverine locations (Z = −7.941, nl and n2 = 117, P < 0.001). Kills were classified with respect to feeding type (Table 1), digestion type, and body mass. In total, 215 lion kills were found from July 2002 to May 2007 (Fig. This variable is a better classification of the spatial distribution of a species around water than classifying the species as either water-dependent or water-independent. Lions have adapted and go through patterns of panting in such a way as to cool down blood, which is then transferred to the brain. 2008). Our results indicate a similar prey selection, with species such as zebra, wildebeest, and waterbuck as the positively selected species. The current shortage of foreign currency to import modern technology or spare parts for the pump stations. Water use can include water used and then returned to its source (renewable resource). water rose from 50 percent in 1990 to 74 percent in 2008. You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? 2002; Redfern et al. 2005). 2003). The mean annual rainfall in the study area was 460 mm/year (1997–2007), of which 80% falls between October and the end of March. The odds-ratio was available for most species (94% of all 215 kills), but the water dependency of the missing 13 kills (5 species) were estimated using the expert opinion of the Klaserie Warden (for instance, the water dependency of warthog [Phacochoerus africanus] is characterized as intermediate to that of impala and water-buck). Lion kills of waterbuck are significantly closer to water points than expected based on chance simply because this prey species is not randomly distributed over the landscape. Data analysis was done in ArcGIS, selecting only those grid cells (15 × 15 m) where lion kills or random points were located. (2009) showed that species react to the spatial heterogeneity in lion predation pressure, with browsers shifting to more open areas as an antipredator strategy but grazers being less affected. It was later the basis for a handful of different movies. 2006). 2008), their density, spatial distribution, and habitat selection (Creel et al. United States Geological Survey (USGS) resources on surface water: 1. They fill small basins at the base of trees or or in natural depressions in the landscape with rainwater or snow melt. Water dependency of the prey species and the distance of the kills to water were negatively associated. Cameroon - Cameroon - Resources and power: Cameroon is endowed with abundant mineral wealth, but meaningful exploitation has been slow to materialize. Photo: Flickr. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Cameroon. We were able to separate the confounding effect of vegetation differences around water holes and water supply. Having once tried to give my cat a bath, I have the scratch marks to prove most cats... You can lead a cat to water, but can you make him swim? The demarcation between these 2 groups (5.3 km; Table 2) was chosen so that sample sizes for the groups were equal. – Raven A. Rentas. The differences in distances between kill sites and random sites did not differ for artificial water points and natural rivers (Wald χ21= 0.316, P > 0.10), indicating that water is the main factor in determining the kill location and that vegetation density around riverine areas does not have any effect on the kill location. Don't have access to safe drinking water. Lion kills were spatially clustered and were significantly different from a random distribution (Z = −39.67, P < 0.01). We expected to find kills of browsers and impala (the only mixed feeder species) closer to rivers and grazers closer to artificial water points (Smit et al. 2007), but feeding type was not related to the type of the water source that was closest to the kill site. The question remains whether the locations of lion kills are influenced by the availability of water sources, and if this effect is due to the attraction of wildlife to water and hence the higher prey densities there, or if it is caused by the increased cover for stalking lions around these water sources. We checked for spatial autocorrelation of the distances between kill sites and water with Moran's I, using SAM version 3 (Rangel et al. Lion kills of elephant (Loxodonta africana) were never recorded in Klaserie. Cameroon does not have specific legislation on environmental protection, but in a number of sectors a number of texts and regulations deal with environmental issues. However, you will notice that the Bushmen people (also known as the San people), have found a great way to adapt to the harsh environment. Surface water is constantly replenished through precipitation, and lost through evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies. Box 150, Hoedspruit, 1380, South Africa, ARC Range and Forage Institute Nelspruit, PB X05, Lynn East 0039, South Africa, ITC, P.O. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. 2005). We found that lion kills in Klaserie were located closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of kills. 2001; Prins and Iason 1989; Van Orsdol 1984). 2007) where lions exhibited a seasonal pattern in prey selection as a response to the lower availability of prey in the rainy season when prey species are spread over a larger area and no longer concentrate around limited water points. 2009) but also the local community structure of the mammal assemblage (Mills and Shenk 1992; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Power 2002). See world total and list by country. Several studies found that the composition of lion prey is determined mainly by prey body mass (Funston et al. 2005; Valeix et al. Mammal population regulation, keystone processes and ecosystem dynamics, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. The study area is dominated by open woodland, with mopane (Colophosper-mum mopane) and red bush willow (Combretum apiculatum) as dominant tree species. I recently spent a few days following the lions at #DubaPlains and filming their swimming and wading in the water. Large amounts of kyanite (an aluminum silicate) and bauxite are deposited at Minim-Martap and Ngaoundéré on the Adamawa Plateau, and Cameroon’s cobalt deposits are significant enough to make it a major world producer. Lion kills were significantly closer to water than expected based on a random distribution of the kills (generalized linear model; Wald χ21 = 12.06, P < 0.001; Fig. Learn about all the amazing animals in Cameroon. Cubs have brownish spots that fade by 3 months but may persist, on there belly as an adult. Moreover, grazers are more water-dependent than browsers because of the lower water content in grass, and nonruminants would need a larger home range than ruminants of similar size because of their generally larger intake requirements (Redfern et al. (2003) calculated the probability of encountering different herbivore species in relation to the distance from water points. (2005). According to the JMP, Cameroon is therefore on-track to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for the drinking water sector of 75 percent by 2015 (see Figure 1). (2003), who also found no relationship between the distribution of prey and these traits. Water dependency of the species affected the kill location, with water-dependent species killed closer to water than species not dependent on water. Herbivore distribution patterns around rivers and artificial surface water sources in a large African savanna park, The role of water abundance, thermoregulation, perceived predation risk and interference competition in water access by African herbivores, Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use, Factors affecting livestock predation by lions in Cameroon, Effects of fire and herbivory on the stability of savanna ecosystems, Foraging behaviour and hunting success of lions in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern, Habitat quality and heterogeneity influence distribution and behavior in African buffalo (, The relationship between molar morphology and ecology within, Estimating bat fatality at a Texas wind energy facility: implications transcending the United States–Mexico border, Delayed mortality of males in Thylamys bruchi, a semelparous marsupial from the Monte Desert, Argentina, About the American Society of Mammalogists, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 American Society of Mammalogists. 2009), and prey assemblage (Hayward et al. Kalahari Lion The Kalahari lion is a sub-species that behaves and looks different from other lions as a result of its adaptation to the Kalahari environment. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2008). A male Lion will develop a mane by year 3, this will vary in color from blond to black. According to the EPA, 68% of community water system users received their water from a surface water source, such as a lake (1). The spatial distribution of lion kills was studied at the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, South Africa. Box plots show ranges (whiskers), 25% and 75% quartiles (boxes), and medians. A vulnerability is like a hole in your software that malware can use to get onto your device. These results indicate that water was the major factor influencing lion prey choice and prey location, and that vegetation cover was unimportant in the selection of the kill site at the scale measured by ASTER. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cameroon Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands. Hence, water availability in Klaserie is not strongly constraining the distribution of prey species. In some areas, livestock predation remains a severe problem. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995; Winnie et al. Browsing and grazing species, especially impala (Prins and Van Der Jeugd 1993) or wildebeest (Holdo et al. Lions found in south Cameroon forest, far from their known range. We have empowered, educated and inspired. 1995; Owen-Smith and Mills 2006; Sinclair 1985; Sinclair et al. Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard I. To compare the difference in vegetation density between artificial water points and sites along natural water sources, we also determined NDVI values at these artificial water points and compared those with an equal number of randomly located sites 150 m from the middle of the river, which was assumed to represent the riverine vegetation. Prey composition depended on the distance to the nearest water point (χ26 = 13.84, P < 0.05; Table 2), with buffalo, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and wildebeest taken relatively closer to water. The spatial distribution of lion kills in relation to the distribution of their prey, and the traits of the prey species that determine their distribution, are not clear. Lion kills were closer to rivers and to artificial water points than expected by random distribution of the kills. Therefore, the composition of lion prey (Table 2) was dependent on the proximity to water. We used the odds-ratio, a continuous variable calculated by Redfern et al. Body size and feeding type can influence water dependency of a species (Redfern et al. Also, other landscape elements can increase predation risk by lions, such as erosion gullies, the availability of kopjes (Hopcraft et al. 2003), and therefore local differences in community assemblages can lead to important changes at the system level through cascading effects, such as has been reported elsewhere as a result of predation (Carpenter et al. To learn more, visit. In this ministry there are two departments in charge of water: one for management and the other for the mobilization of water resources. They are often found lying on their backs with their paws overturned. Always try and be in the park as early as possible as this will undoubtedly help in you getting that sighting. Thus, our study shows that prey availability is more important than prey vulnerability, consistent with the predictions of Ogutu and Dublin (2004) and inconsistent with the findings of Hopcraft et al. Redfern et al. They live in groups of between 15 to 20 lions with at most 3 males. The pools go by a variety of names: prairie potholes, whale wallows, hog wallows, sinks, and kettles. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. We separated the effect of water supply on predation by lions from the effect of cover provided by vegetation associated with rivers. Our finding that lion kills are closer to water than expected on the basis of a random distribution could affect not only prey distribution (Valeix et al. 1994; Palomares et al. The Black Umfolozi River is a good area to keep an eye out for cats, there is lots to eat around the water. In Cameroon, the water sector is managed by the Ministry of Water Resources and Energy. It was a scene I first filmed seven years ago and some of the cubs from that time are still splashing around today. 2008; Ripple and Beschta 2006, 2007; Schmitz et al. Type of water source (natural or artificial) or random point was included as a fixed factor, together with several other fixed factors—feeding type, digestion type (ruminant or nonruminant), and season—and the covariates body mass and water dependency. The table below shows the main public actors of the sector. 2009; Sinclair 2003), might have a keystone role in the composition of savanna systems (Van Langevelde et al. 2005). 2007; Hopcraft et al. 2003). However, hunting success was only slightly higher in dense vegetation where it is thought to provide cover for stalking lions (Funston et al. For each location of a lion kill the shortest (straight-line) distance between that location and the nearest artificial and natural water point was calculated using ArcGIS (version 9.2; ESRI Inc., Redlands, California). Across Africa & Asia we have built schools, medical clinics and community centres. 4.3.3 Water sources 73 4.3.4 Piped distribution systems 74. Hence, we expect kills of water-dependent species to be closer to water than kills of species not dependent on water. We found that lion predation pressure is not distributed uniformly over the area but is higher closer to water holes. Surface water is water that collects on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, reservoir, or ocean. Surfac… Other ministries and specialized institutions are involved in the water sector. S.. Smit I. P. J. Seventy-seven artificial water points and 40 catchment dams provide drinking water over the entire year, over an area of 579 km2, so temporal fluctuations in water availability are not significant. For lion prey in the Klaserie Nature Reserve, estimated population density (individuals/km2, from mean survey values from 2002 to 2006), percentage each species comprised of reported lion kills (2002–2007, n = 215), Jacobs’ index (D) for prey selection (+ values) or avoidance (− values), adult body mass, and digestion and feeding types. Ogutu and Dublin (2004) showed that lion density is correlated positively with prey biomass and that prey availability seems to be more important than habitat characteristics in determining composition of lion prey (Hayward et al. 2007; Prins and Iason 1989; Sinclair and Arcese 1995). Thus, kills are expected to be found farther from water points in the wet season than in the dry season. Currently Matson is the host of the weekly radio show, “National Geographic Weekend.” Conducting interviews from the studio and from the field, Matson connects with some of the greatest explorers and adventurers on the planet to transport listeners to the far corners of the world and to the hidden corners of their own backyards. National Geographic Headquarters 1145 17th Street NW Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. May 7, 2019. Moreover, we tested for differences in the spatial distribution between kills of different prey species. © 1996 - 2019 National Geographic Society. We usually take water for granted yet in a lot of regions worldwide (including Africa) water is a scarce resource. Vernal pools are a type of wetlands - sometimes resembling larger puddles. This week I talk about swimming lions and efforts to save big cats in Africa as part of Big Cat Week on my radio show, “National Geographic Weekend.” Tune in and tune in to adventure.
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